My New “Mini Paddle” and Morserino-32 Ready for this weekend #paddle #morserino-32 #cw #Hk3w #Hk3wShack #Hamr #Hamradio #dx

New WSJT-X 2.5.1 GA Release

We are pleased to announce the General Availability (GA) release of WSJT-X version 2.5.1. This release mainly contains improvements and defect repairs related to Q65 and JT65 modes when used with non-standard

and compound calls. Also included is a new feature for microwave aircraft scatter, and repairs for defects detected since the 2.5.0 GA release.

A full list of changes can be found in the Release Notes: https://physics.princeton.edu//pulsar/k1jt/Release_Notes.txt

IMPORTANT: If you expect to use the JT65 or Q65 modes to make weak-signal QSOs that involve a nonstandard callsign, be sure to upgrade to WSJT-X 2.5.1!

Links to WSJT-X 2.5.1 installation packages for Windows, Linux, and Macintosh are available here: http://physics.princeton.edu/pulsar/k1jt/wsjtx.html

You can also download the packages from our SourceForge site: https://sourceforge.net/projects/wsjt/files/

It may take a short time for the SourceForge site to be updated.

WSJT-X is licensed under the terms of Version 3 of the GNU General Public License (GPL). Development of this software is a cooperative project to which many amateur radio operators have contributed. If you use our code, please have the courtesy to let us know about it. If you find bugs or make improvements to the code, please report them to us in a timely fashion.

The authors and Copyright holders of WSJT-X request that derivative works should not publish programs based on features in WSJT-X before those features are made available in a General Availability (GA) release of WSJT-X. We will cease making public Release Candidate (RC) pre-releases for testing and user early access purposes if this request is ignored.

Bugs should be reported by following instructions found here in the User

Guide:

https://www.physics.princeton.edu//pulsar/K1JT/wsjtx-doc/wsjtx-main-2.5.1.html#_bug_reports

We hope you will enjoy using WSJT-X 2.5.1.

— 73 from Joe, K1JT; Bill, G4WJS; Steve, K9AN; and Nico, IV3NWV

HK3W QSL’s via direct today! #Hk3w #Hk3wShack #Qsl #hamr #Hamradio

Hi everyone! Today more than 30 QSLs are placed at the Miami post office via direct to JA, W, EA, EY, DL, TA, PY. I hope you receive my cards soon.

3Y0J Bouvet Island News 21 October 2021

Today we have finalized the procurement of all our 3Y0J antennas. All antennas will be supplied by our sponsors InnovAntenna, DX Engineering and Spiderbeam. We have run extensive HFTA analysis that shows our signals is prediced to be STRONG all over the planet. We will bring a mix of antennas with us with different material and technology. We have prepared a main antenna farm, backup antennas and a replacement strategy. We have focused on bringing quality products with us. You can expect our 160m toploaded vertical to be 21 m tall and our yagis will be 7 to 10m up on solid antenna masts that can withstand 35 to 44 m/s wind. We have various yagis with us. And we plan dedicated yagis for Asia, EU and NA/SA on a triplexer/diplexer system. We will run inband on 40-10m. All this will be visible on the antenna layout drawing. InnovAntenna will launch a new product DXR-3 Bouvet – a yagi designed for our DXpedition which you can soon buy at DX Engineering.

The antennas will soon be shipped to Norway for inspection and testing, we have a site off the west coast to test the equipment in harsh weather. Some low band verticals will be shipped to Arizona for assembling and testing, some yagis will be shipped to New York, and finally topband antennas will be sent to Hungary. This is truly an international project where all team members contribute with a common goal to activate Bouvet to give you that much needed QSO!

Let’s make it happen – support 3Y0J via paypal bouvet@3y0j.no

New fuction on Live Stream on ClubLog Thanks Michael @G7VJR #Clublog #Livestream

Imagen

3DA0RR — There have been reports that Roman Vega (aka Romeo Stepanenko) from OPDX Bulletin

3W3RR [also to name a “few” other callsigns — 1S0RR, 1S0XV, 1S1RR, 4L/AH0M, 5A0RR, 9D0RR, R3A/3W3RR, UB5JRR, XE2/AH0M, YA0RR and P5RS7]) is expected to be active as 3DA0RR between October 14-16th. ADDED NOTE: Even if Romeo’s 3DA0RR operation takes place, his operation will probably not count. He has been banned disqualified from participation in the DXCC program (in any manner). This was activated by the ARRL Awards Committee after they reviewed all of the documentation for Romeo’s 1992-93 P5RS7 North Korea operation. It was also announced in a ARRL DX Bulletin (#11) in 1996:
http://www.arrl.org/w1aw-bulletins-archive/ARLD011/1996

Antarctic Treaty – Russia

PMR60ANT, RA60ANT, RB60ANT, RC60ANT, RG60ANT, RJ60ANT, RK60ANT, RL60ANT, RN60ANT, RT60ANT, RU60ANT, RZ60ANT special event stations will be active from Russia, 1 October – 31 December 2021, commemorating 60th Anniversary of the Antarctic Treaty.
They will operate on HF Bands.
QSL via RZ3EC, ClubLog OQRS.
Ads for direct QSL:
Eugene Shelkanovtsev, P.O. Box 70, Orel, 302028, Russia.

Summary of DX Activity since 2021-10-01 Many thanks Michael @G7VJR #Clublog

Club Log DX Report for the period 2021-10-01 to 2021-10-08

This report is sent to the Club Log Google Group every 7 days. It’s also available daily at 14:30Z from https://clublog.org/dxreport.html.

It contains a summary of band conditions and activity, based on the data that you and other Club Log users have uploaded. If you have any suggestions or feedback on this report, please email Michael G7VJR at michael.

Solar activity

The following data are recorded for the Solar Flux Index (SFI), A-index and K-index.

Date SFI A K
2021-10-08 86 5 1
2021-10-07 85 8 2
2021-10-06 82 5 3
2021-10-04 86 6 1
2021-10-03 87 8 2
2021-10-02 91 14 4
2021-10-01 95 9 4

Active expeditions

The following table lists the 15 most recent expeditions to use Club Log.

Callsign DXCC Last QSO # QSOs % Unique DXLite
S9OK SAO TOME & PRINCIPE 2021-10-08 12:40 52,745 22.40
3D2USU FIJI ISLANDS 2021-10-08 08:11 43,772 46.30
3DA0RU KINGDOM OF ESWATINI 2021-10-07 21:48 1,780 69.21
9G5FI GHANA 2021-10-07 08:37 84,688 38.49
KP4/AB2RF PUERTO RICO 2021-10-05 23:55 2,332 68.44
5H1IP TANZANIA 2021-09-29 05:08 4,765 69.25
3D2CR CONWAY REEF 2021-09-25 17:02 79,278 16.26
OG0C ALAND ISLANDS 2021-08-28 16:20 36,513 49.65
5I3B TANZANIA 2021-08-26 00:22 8,034 41.37
5I3W TANZANIA 2021-08-25 21:35 4,881 58.21
5T2KW MAURITANIA 2021-08-17 19:15 10,695 57.38
OJ0C MARKET REEF 2021-08-15 10:12 33,759 50.59
MS0INT SCOTLAND 2021-07-23 21:53 21,267 55.68
JD1BLY OGASAWARA 2021-06-13 00:27 83,979 34.65
C92RU MOZAMBIQUE 2021-04-13 23:03 44,005 25.54

Most active modes

This chart illustrates which modes are being used most heavily during the period of this report.

Mode % Use QSOs Graph
FT8 63.92 568,362
CW 15.26 135,659
SSB 13.50 120,040
FT4 4.70 41,766
RTTY 1.60 14,245
PSK 0.49 4,379
MFSK 0.22 1,929
FM 0.16 1,451
HELL 0.03 228
DIGITALVOICE 0.02 152
MSK144 0.01 110
JT65 0.01 72
AM 0.01 69
All other 0.08 703

Most active bands

This chart illustrates which bands are being used most heavily during the period of this report, and the proportion of QSOs which are DX (crossing continents) in red.

Band QSOs % DX Graph
160M 12,234 26.94
80M 58,961 19.28
60M 16,410 40.78
40M 159,835 28.01
30M 60,919 55.12
20M 190,872 52.20
17M 82,448 71.44
15M 139,687 69.71
12M 98,949 78.12
10M 57,726 82.09
6M 1,313 39.38
4M 12 8.33
2M 5,894 3.07

The total number of QSOs uploaded to Club Log during this period was 885,260.

Most active OQRS accounts

This table lists the most active callsigns using the Club Log Online QSL Request system in the period of this report.

Callsign DXCC # QSLs OQRS
3D2CR CONWAY REEF 2,534
D60AD COMOROS 870
D60AC COMOROS 788
S9OK SAO TOME & PRINCIPE 389
3D2USU FIJI ISLANDS 210
S01WS WESTERN SAHARA 172
PZ5RA SURINAME 72
9G5FI GHANA 70
A25RU BOTSWANA 52
5X3R UGANDA 49
5I3B TANZANIA 48
C92RU MOZAMBIQUE 45
KL7RRC/2021 ALASKA 40
VR2XYL HONG KONG 29
CO8LY CUBA 26

QSO matches for rare entities

The following callsigns have matched QSOs in Club Log in the period of this report. This normally indicates that the DX log has been uploaded to Club Log recently.

Callsign DXCC Rank # Matches DXLite
3D2CR CONWAY REEF 41 7
VP6MW PITCAIRN ISLAND 81 16
D60AC COMOROS 92 327
D60AD COMOROS 92 337
A35JP TONGA 101 105
V73NS MARSHALL ISLANDS 108 40
3DA0RU KINGDOM OF ESWATINI 120 398
JD1BHA OGASAWARA 130 35
5W1SA SAMOA 132 660
3A2MW MONACO 143 56
PJ7/G4JEC SINT MAARTEN 148 22
YI3WHR IRAQ 149 46
YI1WWA IRAQ 149 31
YI1SAL IRAQ 149 21
7Q7CT MALAWI 150 137
D2EB ANGOLA 156 1
8Q7KX MALDIVES 158 77
S9OK SAO TOME & PRINCIPE 160 657
AP2SD PAKISTAN 164 31
AP2HA PAKISTAN 164 98
AP2MKS PAKISTAN 164 19
5R8AL MADAGASCAR 166 31
FS4WBS SAINT MARTIN 167 21
KH0/KC0W MARIANA ISLANDS 168 233
KH0W MARIANA ISLANDS 168 32

QSOs with rare entities (including unmatched)

These QSOs are unverified but may give a clue as to activity by rare DX stations in the period of this report.

Callsign DXCC Rank # QSOs # Spots DXLite
5A1AL LIBYA 84 14 2
D60AC COMOROS 92 23 176
D60AD COMOROS 92 100 174
A35JP TONGA 101 74 13
Z6/DL7UCK REPUBLIC OF KOSOVO 103 6 3
Z6/DL7UCX REPUBLIC OF KOSOVO 103 143 39
XW0LP LAOS 118 3 9
3DA0RU KINGDOM OF ESWATINI 120 2 286
3DA0AQ KINGDOM OF ESWATINI 120 4 46
EL2BG LIBERIA 124 44 5
ST2NH SUDAN 125 4 20
9X2KP RWANDA 131 4 11
5W1SA SAMOA 132 32 32
EP2MRK IRAN 140 7 49
3A2MW MONACO 143 13 7
7Q7CT MALAWI 150 35 27
ZC4GR UK BASES ON CYPRUS 153 16 40
TZ4AM MALI 154 68 70
FO5QB FRENCH POLYNESIA 155 70 16
8Q7PR MALDIVES 158 4 21
8Q7KX MALDIVES 158 4 46
S9OK SAO TOME & PRINCIPE 160 3,728 2438
AP2AM PAKISTAN 164 9 6
AP2FI PAKISTAN 164 10 1
AP2HA PAKISTAN 164 25 5
E51BQ SOUTH COOK ISLANDS 165 25 3
FS4WBS SAINT MARTIN 167 9 1

The information in this report is generated from the data stored in Club Log’s database. Thanks for participating, and good DX!

73, Michael G7VJR

https://clublog.org

4U2U : UNITED NATIONS DAY Special event (10 – 31 Oct 2021) activated by ARCDXC 4U1A from Vienna, Austria.#hamradio #UN #UnitedNations #UNday #ham #hamr #amrad #amateurradio #amateuradio #CQDX #CQ #DX #radio #DXCC #ARCDXC #4U #SpecialEvent #SpecialEvents #ARRL

New DXCC 28Mhz #309 SINGAPORE 9V1ZV Digital FT8 #Hk3wShack #hk3w #dxcc #Digital #dx #Singapore #ft8

All my contacts with 3D2CR CONWAY REEF Dxpedition 2021 are already confirmed in the LoTW, Less than 7 hours after using the Clublog OQRS system, Thank you !! #3d2cr #lotw #Clublog

Imagen

3D2CR CONWAY REEF Dxpedition 2021 Two New Bands 10 and 40Mts Thanks!

Imagen

TQSL 2.5.9 release candidate available for testing #lotw #arrl #dxcc

There’s a few long-standing defects in TQSL that this release is intended to correct.

1. TQSL did not recognize the ‘S’ type-specifier in an ADIF tag. It expected the ADIF 1.0 ‘C’ specifier for strings, and when presented with a valid ADIF file containing a ‘S’ would generate a spurious error (but would properly sign the log.) TQSL now accepts both ‘S’ (String) and ‘C’ (Character) specifiers.

2. For AMSAT-Oscar 7, TQSL now accepts "AO-07" as well as "AO-7" for the satellite name.

3. ADIF mode mapping for modes containing slashes (such as "HELL/150") would not work due to a parsing error. You could enter a mode mapping, which would be ignored. ADIF Modes with slashes can now be mapped to an existing mode (such as "DATA").

4. Remove forced background color settings so system settings for "Dark Mode" work. (Linux only.)

5. Correct the languages "Chinese Traditional" and "Chinese Simplified" as they were reversed.

Usual download locations:

https://www.rickmurphy.net/lotw/tqsl-2.5.9.msi (Windows)
https://www.rickmurphy.net/lotw/tqsl-2.5.9.pkg (Mac, 64-bit)
https://www.rickmurphy.net/lotw/tqsl-legacy-2.5.9.pkg (Mac, 32-bit/PPC)
https://www.rickmurphy.net/lotw/tqsl-2.5.9.tar.gz (Linux/BSD)

Any feedback for this release is greatly appreciated.
73,

-Rick

Rick Murphy, D.Sc., CISSP-ISSAP, K1MU/4, Annandale VA USA

New version Of WSJT-X (WSJT-X 2.5.0 GA Release) #WSJT #FT8 #DX #FT4

We are pleased to announce the General Availability (GA) release of WSJT-X version 2.5.0. New features are described in the WSJT-X User Guide here:

https://physics.princeton.edu//pulsar/k1jt/wsjtx-doc/wsjtx-main-2.5.0.html#NEW_FEATURES

and also Release Notes:

https://physics.princeton.edu//pulsar/k1jt/Release_Notes.txt

On Windows platforms, WSJT-X 2.5 includes MAP65 3.0.0, a wideband polarization-matching tool intended for EME.

Links to WSJT-X 2.5.0 installation packages for Windows, Linux, and Macintosh are available here:

http://physics.princeton.edu/pulsar/k1jt/wsjtx.html

You can also download the packages from our SourceForge site:

https://sourceforge.net/projects/wsjt/files/

It may take a short time for the SourceForge site to be updated.

WSJT-X for Windows now ships with Hamlib built as a dynamic link library (DLL). This change will allow Hamlib bug fixes to be resolved by replacing the DLL with an updated version.

WSJT-X is licensed under the terms of Version 3 of the GNU General Public License (GPL). Development of this software is a cooperative project to which many amateur radio operators have contributed. If you use our code, please have the courtesy to let us know about it. If you find bugs or make improvements to the code, please report them to us in a timely fashion.

The authors and Copyright holders of WSJT-X request that derivative works should not publish programs based on features in WSJT-X before those features are made available in a General Availability (GA) release of WSJT-X. We will cease making public Release Candidate (RC) pre-releases for testing and user early access purposes if this request is ignored.

Bugs should be reported by following instructions found here in the User

Guide:

https://www.physics.princeton.edu//pulsar/K1JT/wsjtx-doc/wsjtx-main-2.5.0.html#_bug_reports

We hope you will enjoy using WSJT-X 2.5.0.

— 73 from Joe, K1JT; Bill, G4WJS; Steve, K9AN; and Nico, IV3NWV

Summary of DX Activity since 2021-09-07 Clublog Many thanks Michael @G7vjr

Club Log DX Report for the period 2021-09-17 to 2021-09-24

This report is sent to the Club Log Google Group every 7 days. It’s also available daily at 14:30Z from https://clublog.org/dxreport.html.

It contains a summary of band conditions and activity, based on the data that you and other Club Log users have uploaded. If you have any suggestions or feedback on this report, please email Michael G7VJR at michael.

Solar activity

The following data are recorded for the Solar Flux Index (SFI), A-index and K-index.

Date SFI A K
2021-09-24 90 11 1
2021-09-23 89 12 2
2021-09-22 85 8 3
2021-09-21 80 3 1
2021-09-20 75 3 1
2021-09-19 74 11 1
2021-09-18 73 24 3

Active expeditions

The following table lists the 15 most recent expeditions to use Club Log.

Callsign DXCC Last QSO # QSOs % Unique DXLite
9G5FI GHANA 2021-09-24 11:25 77,519 40.08
KP4/AB2RF PUERTO RICO 2021-09-24 09:06 2,064 72.48
A5A BHUTAN 2021-09-21 20:28 1,755 87.64
3D2USU FIJI ISLANDS 2021-09-12 16:38 42,843 46.29
OG0C ALAND ISLANDS 2021-08-28 16:20 36,513 49.65
5I3B TANZANIA 2021-08-26 00:22 8,034 41.37
5I3W TANZANIA 2021-08-25 21:35 4,881 58.21
5T2KW MAURITANIA 2021-08-17 19:15 10,695 57.38
OJ0C MARKET REEF 2021-08-15 10:12 33,759 50.59
MS0INT SCOTLAND 2021-07-23 21:53 21,267 55.68
JD1BLY OGASAWARA 2021-06-13 00:27 83,979 34.65
C92RU MOZAMBIQUE 2021-04-13 23:03 44,005 25.54
ZD8HZ ASCENSION ISLAND 2021-04-07 00:15 10,516 62.52
A25RU BOTSWANA 2021-04-01 22:21 48,615 26.46
PJ7AA SINT MAARTEN 2021-03-27 10:10 49,577 43.78

Most active modes

This chart illustrates which modes are being used most heavily during the period of this report.

Mode % Use QSOs Graph
FT8 65.18 449,625
CW 16.38 112,987
SSB 10.73 74,036
FT4 6.45 44,479
MFSK 0.34 2,345
FM 0.27 1,836
PSK 0.25 1,752
RTTY 0.23 1,615
DIGITALVOICE 0.06 397
AM 0.02 153
MSK144 0.02 124
All other 0.07 478

Most active bands

This chart illustrates which bands are being used most heavily during the period of this report, and the proportion of QSOs which are DX (crossing continents) in red.

Band QSOs % DX Graph
160M 7,717 19.23
80M 58,596 14.99
60M 10,758 32.49
40M 168,722 24.29
30M 49,232 41.66
20M 180,008 48.64
17M 87,952 73.28
15M 87,999 76.77
12M 17,414 79.68
10M 11,535 66.77
6M 1,245 3.61
4M 138 0.00
2M 5,620 5.89

The total number of QSOs uploaded to Club Log during this period was 686,936.

Most active OQRS accounts

This table lists the most active callsigns using the Club Log Online QSL Request system in the period of this report.

Callsign DXCC # QSLs OQRS
3D2USU FIJI ISLANDS 246
3D2CR CONWAY REEF 109
S01WS WESTERN SAHARA 76
GJ0KYZ JERSEY 65
CB0ZZ JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 55
5I3B TANZANIA 51
5W1SA SAMOA 51
D60AC COMOROS 44
KL7RRC/2021 ALASKA 34
C92RU MOZAMBIQUE 32
5X3R UGANDA 31
PZ5RA SURINAME 25
9G5FI GHANA 23
3D2AG FIJI ISLANDS 22
JX2US JAN MAYEN 20

QSO matches for rare entities

The following callsigns have matched QSOs in Club Log in the period of this report. This normally indicates that the DX log has been uploaded to Club Log recently.

Callsign DXCC Rank # Matches DXLite
CB0ZZ JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 74 2
VP6MW PITCAIRN ISLAND 81 5
D60AC COMOROS 92 1,821
D60AD COMOROS 92 619
Z81D REPUBLIC OF SOUTH SUDAN 100 73
A35JP TONGA 101 226
Z61DX REPUBLIC OF KOSOVO 103 6
JD1BHA OGASAWARA 130 24
5W1SA SAMOA 132 185
3A2MW MONACO 143 31
YI3WHR IRAQ 149 5
YI1WWA IRAQ 149 49
7Q7CT MALAWI 150 251
D2EB ANGOLA 156 2
AP2MKS PAKISTAN 164 17
AP2HA PAKISTAN 164 19
FS4WBS SAINT MARTIN 167 30
KH0/KC0W MARIANA ISLANDS 168 60
KH0W MARIANA ISLANDS 168 12
YS1RR EL SALVADOR 172 10
3D2TS FIJI ISLANDS 173 62
3D2AG FIJI ISLANDS 173 188
9J2BS ZAMBIA 175 77
S79/DH5FS SEYCHELLES ISLANDS 176 64
T6AA AFGHANISTAN 177 1

QSOs with rare entities (including unmatched)

These QSOs are unverified but may give a clue as to activity by rare DX stations in the period of this report.

Callsign DXCC Rank # QSOs # Spots DXLite
3D2CR CONWAY REEF 41 2,737 981
5A1AL LIBYA 84 11 1
D60AC COMOROS 92 166 698
D60AD COMOROS 92 1,317 476
YJ8RN VANUATU 94 13 5
A35JP TONGA 101 308 50
9N7NQ NEPAL 109 88 44
XW0LP LAOS 118 17 3
3DA0AQ KINGDOM OF ESWATINI 120 27 53
EL2BG LIBERIA 124 31 6
Z21ML ZIMBABWE 127 8 19
JE1ICU/JD1 OGASAWARA 130 4 2
JD1BHA OGASAWARA 130 17 6
9X2AW RWANDA 131 341 148
5W1SA SAMOA 132 71 69
T88SS PALAU 134 9 3
3A2MW MONACO 143 17 1
YI1WWA IRAQ 149 4 45
ZC4GR UK BASES ON CYPRUS 153 9 16
TZ4AM MALI 154 106 169
V85T BRUNEI 157 15 17
8Q7PR MALDIVES 158 45 7
HH2AA HAITI 163 4 2
HH2JA HAITI 163 89 5
AP2MS PAKISTAN 164 3 1
AP2AM PAKISTAN 164 6 2
AP2FI PAKISTAN 164 7 3
AP2HA PAKISTAN 164 13 1

The information in this report is generated from the data stored in Club Log’s database. Thanks for participating, and good DX!

73, Michael G7VJR

Hoy miércoles comienzó el equinoccio de primavera 2021

Será cuando el Sol esté iluminando directamente el Ecuador de la Tierra, es decir que ilumina los hemisferios sur y norte. A las 16:21 del 22 de septiembre dará inicio al equinoccio de primavera.

El Parque Astronómico La Punta continúa fomentando el interés por la ciencia, la astronomía y el cosmos.

En nuestro país y el mundo la llegada de la primavera es considerada una de las estaciones más hermosa del año. El Parque Astronómico La Punta de la Secretaria de Extensión, continúa fomentando el interés por la ciencia, la astronomía y el cosmos. Y nos cuentan más de cerca en qué consiste el equinoccio de primavera.

Es esta oportunidad desde el PALP, afirmaron que este fenómeno se produce sólo dos veces al año: el equinoccio.

Uno que define el comienzo del otoño en marzo, y el otro el inicio de la primavera que será este miércoles a las 16:21.

“Los equinoccios se caracterizan porque la duración del día, es decir desde que sale hasta que se oculta, es la misma que la noche y luego los próximos días irán siendo más largos que las noches”, dijo el astrónomo del PALP, Ronny Tapia.

“También podemos conocer exactamente donde se encuentran los puntos cardinales este, que será por donde saldrá el Sol ese día, y el oeste, que será cuando se oculte”, dijo Tapia.

Además, el astrónomo, afirmó que: “Luego del 22 de septiembre el Sol irá saliendo en dirección este, pero se irá desplazando un poco hacia el sur cada día, al igual que durante su ocaso, que se irá ocultado cada vez más hacia el sur. Este desplazamiento seguirá hasta diciembre, cuando inicie el verano”.

FOSS for amateur radio By KJ7RRV

FOSS for amateur radio

This article brought to you by LWN subscribersSubscribers to LWN.net made this article — and everything that surrounds it — possible. If you appreciate our content, please buy a subscription and make the next set of articles possible.

September 7, 2021

This article was contributed by Sam Sloniker

Amateur (“ham”) radio operators have been experimenting with ways to use computers in their hobby since PCs became widely available—perhaps even before then. While many people picture hams either talking into a microphone or tapping a telegraph key, many hams now type on a keyboard or even click buttons on a computer screen to make contacts. Even hams who still prefer to talk or use Morse code may still use computers for some things, such as logging contacts or predicting radio conditions. While most hams use Windows, there is no shortage of ham radio software for Linux.

Utilities

HamClock, as its name implies, has a primary function as a clock, but it has several other features as well. It shows a world map, and the user can click anywhere on the map to see the current time and weather conditions at that location. It also shows radio-propagation predictions, which indicate the probability that a ham’s signals will be received at any particular location on Earth. These predictions are available in numerical form and as map overlays. In addition to propagation predictions, HamClock provides graphs and images indicating solar activity such as sunspots, which strongly affect radio propagation.

[HamClock]

Most hams keep logs of all contacts they have made over the radio; this was (and still may be) required by law in some countries. Historically, hams have kept logs on paper, but many now use electronic logging programs. There are several Linux-based, FOSS logging programs, such as FLLog (documentation/download) and Xlog. One logging-related program that is designed to work with other logging software is TQSL, which cryptographically signs confirmations of contacts and sends them to the Logbook of the World (LoTW). The American Radio Relay League (ARRL) uses LoTW verification to issue awards for certain achievements, such as contacting 100 countries or all 50 US states, which previously required submitting postcards (called QSL cards) received from the person contacted from each country or state. Collecting QSL cards is still popular, and they can still be used for awards, as LoTW is completely optional.

Communication tools

Traditionally, in order to communicate, hams have used either continuous wave (CW) to send Morse code or any of a variety of “phone” (voice) modes. The different phone modes all allow two or more radio operators to talk to each other, but they convert audio signals to radio waves in different ways. However, many hams now use digital modes. One of the main benefits of these modes is that they can be decoded from weak signals, allowing more reliable long-range communication compared to CW or phone.

FT8 is the most popular digital mode for ham radio. It is used for structured contacts, typically exchanging call signs, locations, and signal strength reports. FT8 sends short, encoded messages such as “CQ KJ7RRV CN72”. In that message, CQ means “calling all stations”, KJ7RRV is my call sign, and CN72 is my location on the southern Oregon coast, encoded using the Maidenhead Locator System.

FT8 is much slower than most other digital modes—sending the message above takes about 13 seconds—but its slow speed allows it to be extremely reliable, even under poor radio conditions. Radio propagation conditions over the last few years have been relatively poor (although they are currently improving) due to a minimum in the 11-year solar cycle. FT8 has been usable under all but the worst conditions, though it is certainly easier to make contacts when conditions are good. WSJT-X, the original and most popular program for FT8, is FOSS and is available for Linux.

Fldigi is another program used for digital modes. Unlike FT8, most of the modes in fldigi can transfer free-form text. The most popular mode included, PSK31, is designed for conversational contacts over long distances. Some other modes are primarily used for transferring files, which is supported well by fldigi. Flamp is a separate program that connects to fldigi; it is used to transfer files over radio by encoding them into a plain-text format that can be decoded by flamp on another computer. If an error occurs in transmission, flamp can detect the error and determine which portion of the file it is in, so the sender can resend only the portion that failed.

Flmsg is a program that allows email-like forms to be used with fldigi and (optionally) flamp. A form allows structured spreadsheet-like data to be transferred efficiently, by avoiding the need to transmit common information with every message. Many forms are intended for disaster response; for example, there is an “ICS-216 MEDICAL PLAN” form which is specifically designed for sending information about available ambulances, hospitals, and other emergency medical care resources. Some other forms, such as “ICS-213 GENERAL MESSAGE,” mostly contain free-form text and are intended for use when no more-specific form is available.

Fldigi, flamp, and flmsg (with its forms), along with a few related programs, are all available at W1HKJ’s web site or from SourceForge.

Radio modems

WSJT-X and fldigi use modems that are completely software-based; they use a computer’s sound card to transmit and receive audio signals. These signals are sent and received by a radio using a special device called a radio-sound-card interface. There are schematics available online for these interfaces, although most hams purchase a pre-built one. The SignaLink USB is a popular model that also has a built-in USB sound card, allowing the user to continue using the computer’s internal sound card for other purposes. Although the manufacturer does not officially support Linux, many people have successfully used the device without needing to install extra drivers.

Another digital mode that is commonly used is packet radio. Most packet networks use AX.25, which is a modified version of X.25 that is designed to be used over ham radio. Linux works well for packet radio, because the kernel’s networking stack has native support for AX.25. Although external hardware modems can be used, it is now common to use a computer sound card for packet radio. Dire Wolf, a FOSS packet-radio program for Linux, includes a sound-card modem, as well as some routing features that are not provided by the kernel.

Winlink, which is a radio-based email system, is another popular digital radio system. Pat is a Linux-compatible, FOSS Winlink client with a web-based GUI. The sound-card modem for Amateur Radio Digital Open Protocol (ARDOP), which is one of the modes for connecting to Winlink, is available for Linux. Winlink can also be used (over shorter distances) with packet radio. There are other modes for Winlink, as well, but most of them are either deprecated or proprietary, and some are Windows-only.

FreeDV is a new digital mode with a different purpose than the ones previously mentioned, most of which transfer text in some form. FreeDV is a digital voice mode. It requires two sound cards; as the user speaks into a microphone connected to one, FreeDV uses an open codec called Codec 2 to compress the digital audio, then uses a sound-card modem on the second one to transmit the encoded audio signal over the radio. At the receiver, the same process runs in reverse. FreeDV, under many circumstances, allows more reliable communication than traditional analog phone modes. With analog voice, a weak signal can still be heard, but is difficult to understand. With digital voice, the signal is either clearly audible and intelligible, or it is not heard at all. This means that when a signal is neither strong nor weak, digital voice will usually be clearer and easier to understand.

One radio-related device that works with Linux is the RTL-SDR. This is a low-cost software-defined radio receiver, which can be used to receive most radio signals, including some AM broadcast stations, most ham radio signals, shortwave radio stations, marine and aviation communications, many police radios, and more. (Some digital signals can also be received, but most of those outside the ham bands are encrypted.) Some RTL-SDRs cost less than $15, but it is worth spending around $30-40 for a good-quality device. I recommend the ones available at RTL-SDR.com, because some others may not be able to receive AM broadcast, shortwave, and certain ham signals.

Becoming a ham

For many, getting a ham license is a good way to learn about and experiment with radio technology. At least in the US, any licensed ham can design their own digital mode and use it on the air, as long as it meets certain restrictions and is publicly documented. For others, becoming a ham is a way to help with disaster response. Organizations like the American Red Cross depend on ham radio for communication when internet and cellular infrastructure fails. Yet another reason is simply as a way to meet new people. While the possibility for this is somewhat limited with modes like FT8, which are more “computer-to-computer” than “person-to-person”, many hams do publish their email addresses on sites such as QRZ.com, and most are happy to receive emails from people they have contacted on the air.

For those interested in getting a ham radio license, there are several resources available. The ARRL’s Licensing, Education, and Training web page would be a good place to start if you live in the US. HamStudy.org is an excellent resource for both studying for the test and finding an exam session; it provides study guides for the US and Canadian tests, though its exam finder only lists US sessions. Finally, an Internet search for “ham radio club in [your city/town]” will most likely find a club’s web site, which will probably either have contact information or more info on getting a license, or both.

Index entries for this article
GuestArticles Sloniker, Sam

3Y0J LATEST NEWS @la7gia @la7tha @ko8sca @lb1qi @ko7ss #3y0j #bouvet #Bouvet2022 #dx

3Y0J team is full speed ahead with the planning, below is just some info about what we’re doing right now.

September 14, 2021 

1. We prepare for the first vessel deposit which is due next month.

2. The logistic team which Gjermund LB5GI is leading are working on several important topics

a.) preparing a safe way to land the operators and the equipment on Bouvet. A flexible system that allows for various conditions will be engineered, constructed and soon tested at a beach in Norway with enough swell. We are working on several different systems to adapt to the conditions. One system consist of 2 zodiaks, buoys, anchor, capstan and rope to safely land the dinghy with and without personell/equipment.

Gjermund and Rune LA7THA are working with some experienced Norwegian professionals within the maritime industry in Norway to test this system live.

b.) prepare a winch system for lifting the equipment up from the beach to the cliff at Cape Fie. Again we prepare for a flexible system that can adapt to various shapes and height of the cliff, we will use both electrical and non-electrical systems, and also manual systems. The most bulky item is the diesel generators (75 kg). System to be engineered, constructed and tested in Norway soon. Effort is being lead by Rune.

c.) a system to assist us in bringing the equipment from the cliff up to the camp roughly 200 ft up at 70ft ASL being planned.

This will help us when bringing 4.5 metric tonn of equipment, fuel and water up to the camp.

3. We are currently reviewing the antenna layout once again. InnovAntenna being our main sponsor. We’re working on a staged approach to allow setting up the camp also during very short weather windows with a setup that will be expanded with more stations and antennas until we reach the full setup. Adrian KO8SCA is currently preparing for testing the tribander yagi.

4. Erwann LB1QI is leading the ancillaries systems and is working on the tent selection. Heated or not heated tents?

5. We are working on the station setup, but so far we have not selected the exact setup – we have several options on the table when it comes to radio and amplifiers.

6. Safety has a high attention in the project, and we will do what we can to avoid accidents and injuries. Bill KO7SS is taking the lead on Safety. Bill is dedicated to oversee all planning and operations wrt safety. We will run risk workshops, discuss safety, safety procedures, mitigate risk, construct emergency shelter, prepare evacuation plan of personell, evacuation of injured operator from camp to vessel etc

In a while we will start with zoom meetings -there you can follow our journey to Bouvet. You can get the latest news, discuss with us topics, get feedback, interact with operators, Q&A and more

Check out our website for this feature – you can buy access for unlimited access to the meetings – and at the same time help us in fundraising. https://www.3y0j.no/funding

9K91KSA, Kuwait

9k91.jpg

Con motivo del Saudi National Day, operadores del KUWAIT AMATEUR RADIO SOCIETY “9K2RA” estarán en el aire con el indicativo especial 9K91KSA del 17 al 25 de setiembre en bandas de HF y WARC en el máximo de modos posible.

Qsl vía P.O. BOX 5240, SAFAT 13053, Kuwait.

First-Class Mail International USPS (Description and Physical Characteristics)

240 First-Class Mail International

241 Description and Physical Characteristics

241.1 General

The First-Class Mail International classification encompasses the categories of international mail that before May 14, 2007, were categorized as airmail letter-post and economy letter-post, postcards, and printed matter.

241.2 Physical Characteristics

241.21 Physical Standards — Letters

241.211 Weight Limit

The weight limit for a letter-size First-Class Mail International mailpiece is 3.5 ounces. Letter-size items exceeding 3.5 ounces are charged the First–Class Mail International flat-size price.

241.212 Dimensions

Letter-size mail must be rectangular and must meet the following dimensions:

  1. Not less than 5-1/2 inches long or 3-1/2 inches high or 0.007-inch thick.
  2. Not more than 11-1/2 inches long or 6-1/8 inches high or 1/4-inch thick.

Note: For the purpose of determining mailability or machinability of a letter-sized piece, the length is the dimension parallel to the delivery address as read, and the height is the dimension perpendicular to the length.

241.213 Color

Light-colored envelopes that do not interfere with the reading of the address and postmark must be used. Brilliant colored envelopes are not authorized.

241.214 Quality

Envelopes and packaging materials must be constructed to be strong enough to withstand normal handling. Highly glazed paper or paper with a design that affects readability or processing is not acceptable.

241.215 Bordered Envelopes and Cards

Envelopes and cards that have green bars or red- and blue-striped borders may be used for the sending of First-Class Mail International items.

241.216 Window Envelopes

Address windows for letter-size envelopes must be used under the following conditions:

  1. The address window must be parallel with the length of the envelope and must be in the lower portion of the address side.
  2. Nothing but the name, address, and any key number used by the mailer may appear through the address window.
  3. The return address should appear in the upper-left corner. If there is no return address and the delivery address does not show through the window, the piece is handled as undeliverable mail.
  4. The address disclosed through the window must be on white paper or paper of a very light color.
  5. When used for Registered Mail, window envelopes must conform to the conditions in DMM 503.
  6. All window envelopes for international mail must include a transparent material covering the window opening — i.e., open-panel envelopes are not acceptable.

241.217 Nonmachinable Surcharge

Regardless of a letter’s weight, a per-piece surcharge (see Notice 123, Price List) applies to a First-Class Mail International letter that is nonmachinable for any of the following reasons:

  1. Has an aspect ratio (length divided by height) of less than 1.3 or more than 2.5.
  2. Is polybagged, polywrapped, or enclosed in any plastic material.
  3. Has clasps, strings, buttons, or similar closure devices.
  4. Contains items such as pens, pencils, or loose keys or coins that cause the thickness of the mailpiece to be uneven.
  5. Is too rigid (does not bend easily when subjected to a transport belt tension of 40 pounds around an 11-inch diameter turn).
  6. Is more than 4-1/4 inches high or 6 inches long and less than 0.009 inch thick.
  7. Has a delivery address parallel to the shorter dimension of the mailpiece.

241.22 Physical Standards — Cards

241.221 Postcard Dimensions

Each postcard claimed at a card price must be rectangular and must meet the following dimensions:

  1. Not less than 3-1/2 inches high or 5-1/2 inches long or 0.007 inch thick.
  2. Not more than 4-1/4 inches high or 6 inches long or 0.016 inch thick.

Note: Unenclosed cards exceeding the size limits for postcards are mailable at the First-Class Mail International letter price if they do not exceed 4-3/4 inches high or 9-1/4 inches long.

241.222 Color

Light-colored cards that do not interfere with the reading of the address and postmark must be used. Brilliant colored cards are not authorized.

241.223 Quality

Cards must be constructed to be strong enough to withstand normal handling. Highly glazed card stock or card stock with a design that affects readability or processing is not acceptable.

241.224 Additional Standards

To claim the card price, postcards must meet the following conditions:

  1. Postcards must consist of single cards sent without a wrapper or envelope.
  2. Privately manufactured postcards, except picture postcards, must bear the heading “Postcard.”

241.225 Right Half of Postcard

The right half of the address side of a card must be reserved for the address of the addressee and postal notations or labels.

241.226 Left Half and Reverse Side of Postcard

The left half of the address side of the card and the reverse side can be used for a message or permissible attachments. If a return address is used, it must appear in the upper-left half of the address side.

241.227 Acceptable Attachments

The following attachments may be applied to a postcard as noted, provided the attachment is made of paper or other thin material and adheres completely to the card:

  1. To the left half or the back side of the card: clippings of any kind, illustrations or photographs, or labels other than address labels.
  2. Only to the back side of the card: stamps likely to be confused with postage stamps.
  3. Only to the address side of the card for addressing purposes: address labels.

241.228 Unacceptable Attachments

The following attachments to a card are not acceptable:

  1. An attachment that is not made of paper.
  2. An attachment that does not totally adhere to the card surface.
  3. An attachment that is an encumbrance to postal processing.

241.229 Folded (Double) Cards

Folded (double) cards must be mailed in envelopes at the First-Class Mail International letter price.

241.23 Physical Standards — Large Envelopes (Flats)

241.231 Weight Limit

The weight limit for a First-Class Mail International large envelope (flat) is less than 16 ounces (the actual weight limit is 15.994 ounces, to accommodate Postal Service systems that round to three decimal places and thus round items that weigh 15.995–15.999 ounces up to 16 ounces).

241.232 Dimensions and Characteristics

Large envelopes (flats) must meet the following dimensions and characteristics:

  1. More than 11-1/2 inches long or 6-1/8 inches high or 1/4-inch thick.
  2. Not more than 15 inches long or 12 inches high or 3/4-inch thick.
  3. Flexible (see 241.236).
  4. Rectangular.
  5. Uniformly thick as stated in 241.235.

Note: The length of a large envelope (flat) is the longest dimension. The height is the dimension perpendicular to the length. A First-Class Mail International large envelope (flat) that does not meet the standards in 241.23 is not eligible for the large envelope (flat) size price and is charged the applicable First-Class Package International Service (small packet) price.

241.233 Color

Light-colored envelopes that do not interfere with the reading of the address and postmark must be used. Brilliant colored envelopes are not authorized.

241.234 Quality

Flats must be constructed to be strong enough to withstand normal handling. Highly glazed paper or paper with a design that affects readability or processing is not acceptable.

241.235 Uniform Thickness

Large envelopes (flats) must be uniformly thick so that any bumps, protrusions, or other irregularities do not cause more than a 1/4-inch variance in thickness. When determining variance in thickness, exclude the outside edges of a mailpiece (1 inch from each edge) when the contents do not extend into those edges. Also, exclude the selvage of any polywrap covering from this determination. Mailers must secure nonpaper contents to prevent shifting of more than 2 inches within the mailpiece if shifting would cause the piece to be nonuniform in thickness or would result in the contents bursting out of the mailpiece.

241.236 Minimum Flexibility

Large envelopes (flats) must be flexible. Boxes with or without hinges, gaps, or breaks that allow the piece to bend are not considered large envelopes (flats). Tight envelopes or wrappers that are filled with one or more boxes are not considered large envelopes (flats). Customers have the option to perform the tests described below and illustrated in Exhibit 241.236aExhibit 241.236c on their own mailpieces. When a Postal Service employee observes a customer demonstrating that a flat-size piece is flexible according to these standards, the employee does not need to perform the test. Test flats as follows:

  1. All large envelopes (flats) (see Exhibit 241.236a):
    1. Place the piece with the length parallel to the edge of a flat surface and extend the piece halfway off the surface.
    2. Press down on the piece at a point 1 inch from the outer edge, in the center of the piece’s length, exerting steady pressure.
    3. The piece is not flexible if it cannot bend at least 1 inch vertically without being damaged.
    4. The piece is flexible if it can bend at least 1 inch vertically without being damaged and does not contain a rigid insert. No further testing is necessary.
    5. If the piece can bend at least 1 inch vertically without being damaged but contains a rigid insert, test the piece according to 241.236b or 241.236c.

Exhibit 241.236a

Flexibility Test — All Large Envelopes (Flats)

· Large envelopes 10 inches or longer that demonstrate the required flexibility in 241.236a but that contain a rigid insert (see Exhibit 241.236b):

  1. Place the piece with the length perpendicular to the edge of a flat surface and extend the piece 5 inches off the surface.
  2. Press down on the piece at a point 1 inch from the outer edge, in the center of the piece’s width, exerting steady pressure.
  3. Turn the piece around and repeat steps 1 and 2. The piece is flexible if both ends can bend at least 2 inches vertically without being damaged.

Exhibit 241.236b

Flexibility Test — Large Envelopes (Flats) 10 Inches or Longer

  1. Large envelopes less than 10 inches long that demonstrate the required flexibility in 241.236a but that contain a rigid insert (see Exhibit 241.236c):
    1. Place the piece with the length perpendicular to the edge of a flat surface and extend the piece halfway off the surface.
    2. Press down on the piece at a point 1 inch from the outer edge, in the center of the piece’s width, exerting steady pressure.
    3. Turn the piece around and repeat steps 1 and 2. The piece is flexible if both ends can bend at least 1 inch vertically without being damaged.

Exhibit 241.236c

Flexibility Test — Large Envelopes (Flats) Less Than 10 Inches Long